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Anno Verdi - The Centenary of Verdi
400 years of the first OPERA LIRICA - Aida - Giuseppe Sinopoli - The Kirov Opera
Macbeth - La Forza del Destino - Otello - Messa da Requiem - Don Carlos


On 6 October 1600 the world's first opera was performed at the Pitti Palace in Florence - Euridice - the first Opera Lirica. The first performance was for the wedding party of Maria de' Medici and Henry IV, King of France, that was celebrated in Florence. The music for Euridice was by Jacopo Peri and the libretto was by the poet Ottavio Rinuccini. Previously there were just theatre shows with musical interludes. Euridice represents the definition of this genre, one of the most popular expressions of Italian culture over the years. And the celebration of the 400 year anniversary of the Opera took place with a repeat of Euridice in the White Salon of Pitti Palace, on the same date and played by the Albalonga Ensemble directed by Anibal Centragolo and could be followed by Internet (www. digimusic/net/euridice. com). Italy's Minister of Culture sponsored it. The celebration included an exhibition of all 400 years of the opera, at the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze, the exhibition called Per un regale evento, Via Tripoli 36. It featured the Medici court with manuscripts, rare prints and the music of that time in Italy; particularly Florence including musical scores, designs and opera costumes, all from the time of Lorenzo Il Magnifico up to the present day. A very fascinating walk through the story of operatic music divided into eight sections, from Orfeo di Poliziano 1480 until it became more popular (previously it was something purely for the court and the rich). There were also four sections dedicated to the musical instruments, to dance and to the way opera was written with the accent on recitative - declamatory song (almost spoken) used in the narrative and dialogue. It was considered quite modern for is time and for 400 years repertoires have fascinated audiences from Vienna to the Amazon!!!

And once again from Vienna to the Amazon jungle, the entire world celebrated the passion for Verdi, Italy's greatest musical son, and the pure magic of his music. His genius lay in fusing the elegant bel canto tradition with drama and strong characterisation. All of the opera houses around the world dedicated 2001 to Giuseppe Verdi. The year 2001 will be the most spectacular year of Verdi's life because, let us say he has never really died because everyday his music is played somewhere - he lives on in his music. La Traviata will be played for this celebration 295 times around the world, almost the same for Rigoletto and Falstaff.

The centre of the celebration will be in Parma, Busseto and Le Roncole, where Giuseppe Verdi was born on 10 October 1813. They "live and breathe" Verdi as the saying goes and make their living keeping his legend alive, selling souvenirs connected to Verdi; this has gone on for the last 100 years. The famous tenor Carlo Bergonzi - runs a hotel in Busseto and when Carlo is away on musical engagements his son runs the hotel. On 27 January 2001 the anniversary of Verdi's death the same Messa da Requiem (1873-4) that Verdi composed for the first anniversary of the death of the poet-patriot Alessandro Manzoni, will be played in the Duomo di Parma in memory of Verdi. Then anybody who is anybody in the world of opera will pay their respect by giving recitals, producing operas with all the great voices of opera and great orchestral conductors: the Kirov, Maggio Fiorentino, Abbado, Mehta, Domingo, Muti etc. The committee that organised the Verdi celebration with the sponsorship from the Italy's Ministry of Culture will organise studies about Verdi. Books will be published, exhibitions mounted, TV programmes (Rai TV have huge archives covering music and opera, documents, documentaries and fiction on Verdi), also the Internet has many sites about the man himself! From the Louvre to the Metropolitan to the Marinskij, all had huge celebrations are dedicated to the composer.

Verdi was not only a great composer but also a political man - a great rebel. He was elected as a deputy for the united Italy. He sat in the parliament from 1861 to 1865. Count Cavour persuaded him to take up politics but Verdi resigned his seat in parliament when Cavour died. He afterwards became senator, and founded the Casa Riposo per Musicisti (retirement home for musicians) where they can still be heard practising. His tomb rests at the Casa, Via Buonarrotti 29 in Milan. Not only was Verdi's opera a symbol of Risorgimento but also his name was used as a slogan. "Viva V.E.R.D.I. " it meant "Viva Vittorio Emanuele, Re d'Italia". Bernardo Bertolucci, another son of Parma like Verdi, started his film "1900 - Il Novecento", the chronicle of the century saying: "Verdi is dead! Verdi is dead!" Verdi played a very central and important role in 19th century Europe. Italy was struggling to become free from Austrian domination and to be unified as a single country, with a single government. All this drove Verdi to play a part in Cavour government the great statesman and architect of national unity. Verdi operas like Un Ballo in Maschera and La Forza del Destino (1862) were wrote while he was still in parliament.

For the celebration of the centenary of Verdi, Parma City spent a lot of money restoring buildings connected with him and his music, such as The Teatro Farnese and the Teatro Regio. Parma's not-to-be-missed dates will be the Messa da Requiem on 27 January 2001 and Un Ballo in Maschera (1859) on 31 January 2001 both conducted by Valery Gergiev. Il Trovatore, (1853) will be on 8 April 2001 at the Teatro Regio conducted by Federico Cortesa. Simon Boccanegra (1857, revised 1881) on 2-4 June 2001 at Parma conducted by Claudio Abbado. Rigoletto (1851) on 29 June 2001 at Teatro Regio conducted by Roberto Rizzi Brignoli. La Traviata (1853) on 17 July 2001 at Teatro Regio conducted by Carlo Rizzi. Verdi in una notte di mezza estate, on 25 July 2001 at Teatro Regio conducted by Marco Armiliano. Progetto Shakespeare May-August at Teatro Farnese. New York City Ballet in September 2001 at Teatro Regio. Macbeth on 7 October 2001 a the Teatro Regio conducted by Evelino Pido. There will also be a V concorso Maria Callas that will be live on TV. They hope to find some new Verdiani voices for future generations. (Now I am very happy to see that the celebration of Parma with Valery Gergiev is the same one I will see in London. Isn't that my good fortune?)

I have been to Parma and around, what I remember most is when I went to a restaurant and asked for a piece of Parmiggiano cheese they brought me Grana. I insisted for Parmiggiano maybe because I was a tourist and only knew Parmiggiano, but sometimes I will admit that Grana can be even better. Let us also not forget the famous prosciutto (ham) of Parma, not to mention the magnificent Lambrusco wine with Verdi's head featured on the bottle, also on the label and stopper.

In the Parma's region between musical instrument factories, monuments to Verdi and food there is a yearly marathon (started three years ago) called Marcia di Verdi. The town people march and pause at all the Verdi monuments not to mention the restaurants! It is one of the principal Italian athletic events dedicated to the local hero - Verdi! The marathon ends in front of the Verdi Theatre on a triumphant note with the music of Va pensiero and Aida. During this marathon they also visit the cheese and salami factory where you can try the delicacies - it sounds more like a food marathon to me! For my next honeymoon - with the man with the eyebrows - I should like to do the marathon with him!

Villa Le Roncole, about 20 miles from Parma, is the birthplace of Verdi. Next to the Villa is the church of San Michele Arcangelo where Verdi was baptised in the chapel's font. I found my visit very emotional. Verdi played as the church organist and there is still the piano used by the composer at the church. At Chiesa della Madona dei Prati Verdi taught music.

Busseto, at Casa Barezzi was the home of Antonio Barezzi the wealthy merchant whom Verdi regarded as a second father and who became his father-in-law when Verdi married his daughter. There is a piano on the first floor, which Verdi played. There is a portrait of Barezzi and Verdi's wife Magherita. At Palazzo Orlando he lived from 1849 to 1851, with his mistress who later became his second wife Giseppina Strepponi. She was a soprano and sung in his first staged work Oberto, Conte di San Bonifacio (1839) at La Scala.

His father Carlo died in Palazzo Orlando. Verdi's carriage still stands in the entrance. And, of course, there is the Giuseppe Verdi Theatre in the Piazza Verdi, both in his honour. The Theatre was built in 1860 inside the 13th century rocca or fortress of Pallavicino family. Verdi never went there because of the way the town was opposed to Giuseppina Strepponi who at that time was not his wife. Then Villa Verdi, Sant'Agata di Villanova sull'Arda became his home in the later years. Now inhabited by his heirs, the Carrara-Verdi family, the villa can be visited by guided tour. This includes the gardens and ground-floor rooms with drawings, Verdi's library and piano, the desk where he worked, as well as a terracotta bust of Verdi from 1872.

Verdi lived for most of his life in Milan and has been the main musical contributor to the grandeur of La Scala. La Scala Museum has two rooms devoted to Verdi and extensive archives about the composer. Maestro Riccardo Muti will celebrate Verdi's centenary at La Scala by conducting the composer's opera Falstaff (1893) written when Verdi was nearly 80 years old, premiered at La Scala on 9 February 1893. His only comic opera Tutto nel mundo e burla (all the world's a joke) could perhaps be autobiographical. Muti said that Falstaff was one opera he would take with him to a desert island. (this was on theBBC's long-standing radio programme of 60 years "Desert Island Discs", where famous people are interviewed and asked what -I think it is 12 - records they would take with them to a desert island!!!); Falstaff conveys the breadth of human understanding and compassion. He would also take Cosi fan tutte. Muti says that all our lives are in that opera and everyone can find something of themselves - every emotion in the human spectrum, humour, pathos, hatred, jealously, grandeur, vanity, weakness, narcissism, intrigue and love in all its senses - pure, intense and passionate. Thanks also to the libretto of Boito, written after Shakespeare's Merry Wives of Windsor. As the last opera of Verdi it could be said to be his final achievement after a long and brilliant career composing. He did not intend Falstaff to be performed publicly, merely for the enjoyment of his friends, to be performed at his Villa di Sant'Agata. (If I had been around at that time I would have liked to be an intimate friend!) Riccardo Muti will conduct the Giorgio Strehler production of Falstaff at La Scala. Muti will repeat the performance in Busseto's little theatre where Toscanini conducted it in 1913 for the centenary of Verdi's birthday. Muti will follow the historic Toscanini direction.

At the Palazzo Reale at Piazza Duomo there will be an exhibition to the great man, with documents from Verdi's time - stage sets, costume designs and autographs. More than 25 rooms illustrate his life and time, including portraits and a reconstruction of the study from Villa Sant'Agata. Verdi lived in room 105 at the Gran Hotel - Via Manzoni for the last 20 years of his life. When the apartment is not in use you can visit it, some of the furnishing are still from Verdi's time, wow!!! (he died in Milan on 27.1.1901)

Even New York City has had the Institute of Verdi Studies for the last 30 years. His 27 operas are going to be published in a series of individual volumes. When La Scala re-opened after the war they sang Verdi. All this looks like a "Verdi renaissance"; we continually revive Verdi and will continue to do so for new audiences at Covent Garden well into the 21st century, in the celebration of Verdi's half-century the festivities were fairly low-key.

Also at Covent Garden, "The Friends of Covent Garden" has a programme for Verdi's centenary celebration of three hours entitled Tutti Verdi. Letters by Verdi and others, not exactly a canonisation of the man, as the quotation and letters revealed Verdi as querulous, self-pitying and anti-social, but his music tells another story. So we'll forgive him his little idiosyncrasies. Tutti Verdi included excerpts from the 27 operas and the Requiem sang by soloists and the Chorus of Covent Garden . The performance will end with Lacrimosa while pictures of Verdi's funeral floated above the dark stage - a real sense of grandeur envelope us all at the Linbury Theatre - ROH. And it ends with "All the world's a joke, and all men fools" from Falstaff. The Royal Albert Hall dedicates a programme to Verdi's opera as well. And the Verdi Requiem concert will be something special as the composer himself conducted the British premiere in 1875, at what was then the new RAH, with a choir of 1,000.

Another celebration will be with Mark Elder and the Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment for Verdi's Requiem. The Italian vocalist I Solist Cantoria with a show call Viva Verdi. Verdi will also be celebrated in ballet. With Verdiana - Maggiodanza at Teatro Verdi - Firenze and La Dame aux Camelia - Balletto di Amburgo at Theatro Massimo - Palermo, we can now say and see Verdi on Point?!

At the Metropolitan Opera House-NY, they will stage Nabucco, a drama about power and love set against a quasi-biblical background; Nabucco Nebuchadnezzar is the only genuine biblical character. The set by John Napier a monolithic temple exterior, a Babylonian palace dominated by a large gold statue of Baal, at the banks of the Euphrates where the Hebrews gather in exile. The costumes by Andreane Neofitou are Old Testament chic and James Levine conducts the score with one of the finest opera orchestra in the world. Nabucco, cutting a long story short, is about an eccentric Assyrian family; one is mad, one a crazed suicide and two women in love with the same man, embracing Judaism. Nabucodonosor, losing their religion, was Verdi's first great success, premiered at La Scala in 1842. The famous Hebrew Chorus, Va, pensiero, was taken up as a national theme of liberation.

In Busseto, at the Giuseppe Verdi Theatre, Aida (1871) will be performed (Franco Zeffirelli in a small-scale production of Egyptian epic). The Egyptian theme stems from Napoleon who was very interested in Egypt, to Delacroix's Egyptian drawings to the triumph of Universal Exhibition all into a "Egyptomania" that I have too. Any staging of Aida with its trumpets and elephants and vast cast reminds me of Cecil B. de Mille's films. The Egyptians mounted - actually at the pyramids - a theatrical masterpiece, which they called Aida at the Pyramids for this centennial year. Even Elton John has made a musical based on Aida.

Franco Zeffirelli's productions of Verdi's operas follow very much the libretto and stage setting as Verdi intended. In comparison Jonathan Miller's productions are modern versions, set in hospitals, prisons, anywhere - even featuring drug-dealers, people literally having sex on stage completely naked. You certainly couldn't take your "maiden aunt" as older unmarried ladies were called years ago. Then all Verdi Verona Festival June-September 2001 with a new production of La Traviata by Franco Zefferelli.

In April 2001 in Berlin while conducting the Deutsche Opera the great Giuseppe Sinopoli died in the middle of Aida whilst conducting the most emotional scene in Act III. This is the most poignant moment for Aida, the Ethiopian princess that was taken as a slave, she and Radames are standing on the banks of the Nile. The Egyptian commander loves Aida but is betrothed to Amneris an Egyptian princess. "Come, O come, together we will flee this land of pain and suffering", implores Aida. Exactly at this moment Sinopoli tumbled into the orchestra pit. (Now we know we all have to die and I suppose this was the most memorable way to die, conducting - as he was - majestically in the midst of a sublime opera. ) The publics, many of them in tears, were hugging each other. One of them said, "It was like waking in the middle of a bad dream and then finding that the dream was true. " The ambulance and police took the maestro away and he died in the arms of his wife Silvia a former concert-pianist.

It was sad for us as audience to lose such a great maestro and such a cultured man, at the young age of 54. He was a Venetian and a doctor of medicine (he wrote a thesis on anthropological and psychiatric matters. ) He also taught avant-garde music composed an opera - Lou Salome that was performed at the Munich Opera in 1981. It was based on a story of Freud's friendship with Salome. He began conducting Verdi at an early age. He also wrote novels and continued his studies with work on archaeology. (He lived in Rome near my friend Federica Berlingieri http://www. geocities. com/SoHo/Easel/7414/index. htm), and had a huge collection of archaeological relics. )

In 1983 he was appointed principal conductor of the Academia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia Orchestra in Rome. In the same year he made his debut at the Metropolitan Opera House with Puccini's Tosca and at Bayreuth with Wagner's Tannhauser and he was booked for a Maher cycle in the Far East. He came at Covent Garden in May 1983 with Manon Lescaut. He made his debut at La Scala in Strauss's Elektra. He was chief conductor of the Staatskapelle in Dresden. He will be succeeded by Bernard Haitink at The Dresden Staatskapelle who will soon be leaving Covent Garden.

Sinopoli was due to take over as music director of that city's Semper Opera. He was the Principal Conductor of the Philharmonic in London from 1980 for eleven years. Since 1992 he worked in Germany and was very popular. He loved Wagner, performed at Bayreuth and wrote a novel about the composer entitle Parsifal in Venice. He was one of the few Italian conductors to have gained success in the Wagnerian temple of Bayreuth. Last year, for the new millennium, he was the first Italian in history to be at the Bayreuth Festival for 124 years - conducting the monumental Trilogy lasting 15 hours. It was a huge honour to conduct the entire Cycle. Sinopoli was due to conducting the Ring Cycle again this year (2001) at Bayreuth.

On the day he was supposed to collect a degree in Egyptology in Rome as arranged, he was given a state funeral and was buried in Rome. He is not the first conductor to die whilst conducting, considering all the travelling, a very stressful and demanding life, although Toscanini managed to survive until 89. Toscanini went to Bayreuth in the '30s but merely conducted a single opera of the Trilogy. (www. bayreuther-festspiele. de)

This Aida was to mark his reconciliation with the city and to honour the memory of Gotz Friedrich, a man that had been the head of the Deutsche Opera. In the Aida programme he quoted the words that Sophocles gives to Oedipus: "You and this city... may fate be merciful to you both and may you remember me with pleasure when I am dead" - how prophetic this was! These words were read as his epitaph afterwards.

Verdi was known as the "Lion King of Italian Opera" and this genius of a man even cooked a great Risotto alla Milanese. His music aroused fanatical enthusiasm for humanity, also patriotic fervour - a great man of Italian culture.

When I went to the Kirov Season at ROH, my heart stopped when Un Ballo in Maschera opened with the stage covered with coloured balloons.

I was at the ROH on 9 July for the launch of The Tribute to Verdi by The Kirov Opera, with the orchestra of the Mariinsky Theatre, conducted by Valery Gergiev. This tribute of six Verdi's operas: Un Ballo in Maschera, Macbeth, Aida, La Forza del Destino, Otello, Don Carlos. They embarked on 11 performances plus a concert of the Requiem, over 13 days. (mail@mariinskyfriends. co. uk - www. mariinskyfriends. co. uk)

The production turned out to be a very tired affair, as participants had not yet recovered from the journey from Russia. And the tenor had the symptoms of flu! Gergiev admits he was horrible and aggressive with Victor Hochhauser about the over-loaded schedule - they performed at St Petersburg on Saturday evening, travelling to London on the Sunday night and rehearsing throughout Monday before embarking on 11 performances in 13 days. He also complained that the high-ticket prices had "kept our real public out of their seats". The producer and designer were screaming at each other all day in their frantic against-the-clock efforts to mount the show on the unfamiliar Covent Garden stage.

The season started with Un Ballo in Maschera, which tells the story of the philandering governor of Boston who is in love with his secretary's wife and threatened by murderous conspirators. She doesn't want to be unfaithful. The plot is very involved and takes a lot of unravelling. (An attempt on the life of Napoleon III not long before the opera's proposed first performance made Verdi's portrayal of the assassinated Swedish King look very tactless so-for political reasons - the action was transferred to New England and the king became a governor of Boston and other characters were re-named accordingly. )

Macbeth -The Lady Macbeth of Olga Sergeeva was with heart and soul. Production of David McVicar a young Scottish director in his Kirov debut and official Covent Garden debut, designed by Tanya McCallin, this staging was new in St Petersburg. They were great moments with the chorus' greatest strength, and the singing was magnificent.

Aida - The Kirov's has a lavish set for Aida in a tradition staging. Alexey Stepaniuk's production opened with a cloth representing a temple at Memphis. With Olga Sergeva singing her third role in five nights as Aida. Larissa Diadkova was a superb Amneris even if Amneris is not really a sympathetic role.

La Forza del Destino - Tortuous Spanish romance, written for St Petersburg and staged in reproductions of the original 1862 sets. The one work firmly linked with St. Petersburg, Verdi revised the score for Milan seven years later. The three-year-old production the Kirov Company brought to the Royal Opera House for a single performance is based on set designs that Andreas Roller made for the premiere in 1862. With panoramic sets, painted back-cloths and gauzes, with Caspar David Friedrich landscapes and trompe l'oeil interiors. Elijah Moshinksy's 1998 staging production was elaborated in three-dimensional form. Galina Gorchakova was originally announced to sing the role of Leonora. She did not appear, as not one of the promised cast has taken the stage in the Kirov performances. The young Russian soprano Irina Gordei took her place, with real amplitude. The Kirov Orchestra was under Gergiev's deputy Gianandrea Noseda and was fine. It was interesting to hear this version, of Alvaro committing suicide after the death of his beloved brother.

Otello - I saw on 16 July 2001 in the presence of HRH The Prince of Wales!!! The libretto was by Arrigo Boito after Shakespeare: the latter's tragedy of the noble warrior flawed by lack of trust - or too much trust of the wrong person! Gergiev carefully conducted the Willow Song - one of the trickiest passages out of all Verdi operas. Together with Ave Maria were sung with breathtaking beauty by young Olga Guriakova, as Desdemona, one of the Kirov's great hopes for the future; her phrasing is authentically Italianate. Vladimir Galuzin's Otello, is the high point of the Kirov season. (I heard his voice earlier this year as Herman in The Queen of Spade, at the ROH. )A baritone in quality he performs at the same level of intensity whatever the dramatic situation. He knows how to deliver the notes. Yuri Alexandrov's production with no Desdemola's bed and the set has giant suits of armour. I was thrilled with this Otello and Charles! We all had a puzzled marriage including Verdi, from the programme: "Set up 'marital' home with Giuseppina Strepponi, a famous retired soprano, while pointedly refusing to disclose to anyone - even his ex father-in-law - whether they were married or not. " The programme also says, "When travelling in Italy, he would frequently take Strepponi with him but ensconce her in hotels away from where he was working, communicating events mainly by letter. Subsequently introduced the soprano Theresa Carrara-Stolz, into his 'menage'. She visited Sant'Agata regularly but did not live there. Verdi seems to have had an affair with her over several years which Strepponi was forced to witness. She exhibited extreme tact. Later relationships settled down to 'friendship a trois'. Verdi, however, had to witness the details blasted across the newspaper after he left a wallet in Stolz's apartment. "All dysfunctional crowded marriages like mine!

Messa da Requiem - This is Verdi's most dramatic work, written in 1874 for the first anniversary of the death of Alessandro Manzoni, the greatest 19th century Italian novelist. Manzoni's historical novel I promessi sposi was a classic in its own time, second only to the Bible and Dante's Divina Comedia. Verdi considers I promessi sposi to be "not only the greatest books of our time, but one of the greatest books ever produced by human mind. It is not a book, but a consolation for humanity. This is because it is a 'true' book, as true as 'truth' itself. Alas, if only artists could once and for all understand this truth, there would no longer be musicians writing music about the future or the past. Neither would there be purist, realist or idealist painters, nor classical or romantic poets, but only true poets, true painters and true musicians. " From the programme: "Manzoni became the symbol of Italy unity, some would say that Italy is still not truly united today, let alone in Manzoni's time when the German-speaking-Austrians ruled in the north, the Latin-speaking Pope in the centre and the Spanish Bourbons in the South. "Also in the programme: "In 1869 he had already written a substantial part of his Requiem, the Libera me - not for the death of Manzoni - but for Rossini, who died the year before. Verdi's grandiose (and never achieved) plan for a Requiem per Rossini had entailed a group of Italian Musicians piecing together their individual contributions to create a mass which, though perhaps lacking in 'unita musicale', might be a beacon for 'unita culturale'. Verdi had understood that the true pantheon of heroes necessary for the founding of an 'Italian' spirit and people were its composers and writers. For various reasons, the Requiem per Rossini never came to fruition but the idea, however, was never completely abandoned. Verdi only needed someone who deserved it - and he was on the lookout! So as soon as he heard that the ailing Manzoni had another relapse, he furiously put himself back to work on his Requiem. The shift from Rossini to Manzoni was not, however, purely one of opportunism, for in Verdi's mind they were naturally linked. After Rossini's death, he had already written, 'When the other one who still lives in no more, what shall we have left?' Manzoni was this 'other one'. Years before the Requiem, therefore, the associations around Rossini and Manzoni had already been providing notes and words a 'danse macabre' in which Verdi would pursue the theme of death as a unifying element for 'national' life. '" By Rodney J. Loka. (www. rossinioperafestival. it)

Don Carlos - was written for the Paris opera and was designed on a scale to meet that city's taste. Verdi refashioned the opera seventeen years later. He suppressed the first Act, so that the new Italian version emerged with four Acts instead of five. It was performed at Covent Garden in translation in Verdi's final four-act version. Yuri Alexandrov's two-year-old production with Teimuraz Murvanidze's set was very atmospheric and Tatiana Noginova's period costumes were beautiful. Olga Savova, heavily pregnant and the chorus was all very good.

Russia has a tradition of singing Verdi, probably the best established outside Italy, going back for 150 years. All Verdi's operas were performed in Moscow and St. Petersburg when they came out. Italian singers were imported, and St Petersburg commissioned La forza del destino. The Kirov claim to be one of the great Verdian nurseries, but the quality of Italian diction was poor. This was an all-Verdi programme, a tribute to the great Italian composer in the centenary year of his death.

I loved it and feeling SEMPRE VERDI!!!!!!!

 

Verinha Ottoni.




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